Hypospadias is a generally essential congenital condition found in male infants. The urethra’s opening isn’t in its legal situation toward the finish of the penis yet is found someplace along the base. The piece of this opening (known as urethral meatus) in hypospadias is generally every day at the intersection of the head (glans) of the penis and the body, even though it tends to be discovered the anyplace lower body. In uncommon cases, it can even be in or under the scrotum.
Types of hypospadias
The type of hypospadias depends on where the opening or orifice of the urethra is located. We can group them in:
- Calendar: the opening is located inside the glans
- Subcoronal or distal: the opening is under the glans
- Medium: the opening is in the body of the penis
- Proximal: the opening is located at the base of the penis
- Perineal: the opening is located behind the scrotum
Symptoms of hypospadias
The main symptom of hypospadias is that the urethral meatus is not at the tip of the penis. It is often accompanied by the following:
- Hock: phenomenon by which the penis curves downwards.
- The hooded appearance of the penis, since only the upper half has foreskin to cover it.
- Hypospadias can also cause problems with penis function:
- Abnormal spraying when urinating.
The child may have to sit down to urinate when he is old enough to go to the bathroom.
Problems with ejaculation and having children; it may be challenging to direct sperm into the uterus during intercourse.
Hypospadias is a congenital condition, which means it is present when the baby is born. During development in the uterus, certain hormones control the development of the penis and the urethra and foreskin formation. It is believed that a malfunction of these hormones leads to hypospadias, but it is not clear exactly what causes this malfunction. Theories include:
Genetics: Hypospadias appears to be hereditary.
Mother’s age: The condition appears to be more common in babies born to mothers over 35 years old, making it a potential risk factor.
Mother’s weight: Mothers classified as overweight have a higher risk of having a baby with hypospadias.
Exposure to certain substances in the uterus: It is thought that if the developing baby is exposed, through the pregnant mother, to certain chemicals, tobacco, alcohol, and even certain fertility drugs, this may increase the risk of hypospadias, but more studies are needed to confirm this.
Treatments for hypospadias
Minor hypospadias, where the opening of the urethra is not far from its proper position, often does not require treatment. In other cases, pediatric hypospadias surgery will be needed to reposition the urethral meatus, which may involve grafting tissue from the foreskin or inside the mouth. In some cases, the shaft may also need to be surgically straightened. Pediatric hypospadias surgery is usually performed at around nine months of age.
What type of specialist treats hypospadias?
Pediatric urologists are specialists in treating diseases of the penis in children, while pediatric surgeons may have to perform a procedure to correct hypospadias.